قال الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم. القرآن الكريم

5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p
137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• Kafih Jerusalem, 1984 , ch

, 1998, , Vol 10, p.

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كيف يكون حب الرسول
القرآن الكريم
El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p
القرآن الكريم
597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form
Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, Robert G "Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• Lapidus 2002 , pp 0
however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632 Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p

The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol.

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Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic
محمد
محمد
Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007